Supply Chain Roundtable

Indonesian Snapper and Grouper

Read the Snapper and Grouper Sector Sustainability Update 2021.

The Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Supply Chain Roundtable (SR) develops and supports fishery improvement projects (FIPs) in Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries, particularly small-scale fisheries. The SR engages with the Indonesian government on fishery policy and management, supports co-management in the artisanal fishery, and works with foodservice and retailers on sustainability issues and sourcing best practices.


The SR includes leading US importers and an Indonesia-based supplier to domestic retailers. 

The two existing national-level FIPs only cover about 20 percent of Indonesia’s wild snapper and grouper production. In order to achieve the Target 75 goals, this SR must undergo extensive expansion to include more US-based importers, Indonesia-based suppliers, and suppliers to other Asian markets.

See a list of all SR members.

Sector Snapshot

2 Active National-level FIPs

11 Roundtable Participating Companies

23 Indonesian Processing & Exporting Companies Engaged in FIPs

7.5 % Indonesian Snapper and Grouper Improving

Join This Roundtable

To join this Supply Chain Roundtable, or for more information, please contact Amber Von Harten or call SFP at 1-808-726-2582.

Impact & Updates

The SR engaged with the Indonesian government on the need to support key sustainability issues in policy making, including improved data collection (biological and socioeconomic) to support development of appropriate management measures, improved understanding of fleet characteristics and operation, and enhanced compliance with regulations using alternative approaches. 

The SR supported the formal development, launch, and public recognition of the Indonesian Demersal Association (ADI), composed of leading processing and exporting companies.

The SR helped merge three site-level, industry-led snapper and grouper FIPs into a single national-level snapper and grouper FIP, led by ADI.

Q4 2022 Update:

  • Based on the co-management training provided to the SR in Q3 2022, a small working group of SR participants was formed to discuss opportunities for developing sourcing policies to support implementation of co-management approaches in the Indonesian snapper and grouper fishery. The working group met in December and will continue meetings in Q1 2023. 

Sector Background

While about 16 percent of the global snapper and grouper production was considered sustainable or improving in 2014, by 2018, that number had fallen to only about 8 percent. The decrease was due to declines in reported FIP volumes in Indonesia, Mexico, and Brazil, coupled with increased production of both wild and farmed snappers and groupers in countries not engaged with sustainability work.

The success of T75 in the snapper and grouper sector depends upon key production countries, such as Mexico, to demonstrate that sustainable management and harvest of snapper and grouper is possible and to expand FIPs to a regional or national level.

The snapper and grouper sector comprises the wild and farmed snapper (Lutjanidae family) and grouper (Serranidae family) species. Most snapper and grouper species are coastal demersal fish, generally associated to hard-bottom habitats (rocky or reef areas). Snapper and grouper are highly valuable in US, European, and some Asian markets. These species are generally traded live, fresh (or chilled), or frozen.

Indonesia accounts for about 40 percent of global snapper and grouper production, with both species sold in domestic and international markets. A significant majority of Indonesian production (estimated at 80 percent) remains in-country and is sold in the Indonesian domestic market.

Activity & Workplan

For 2020-2021, SFP has advised the Supply Chain Roundtable participants of the following improvement needs in Indonesian snapper and grouper fisheries:

  1. Improve stock status information in Indonesian territorial waters: Currently, snappers and groupers are included in the “demersal fishes” group in the public stock status overview in Indonesia, and not reported as individual species groups. There is also a lack of species-specific identification in landings data. Although about 14 species of snapper and more than 30 species of grouper are harvested in Indonesia, most processors categorize them all into just two groups of snappers and one general category of groupers. In addition, lack of compliance and accuracy in submission of logbook data hampers effective stock evaluations. Although industrial snapper and grouper vessels are required by law to fill out logbooks documenting their catch data and submit these logbooks to the government, many vessels are not submitting logbooks, and the accuracy of data in some of those that are submitted is questionable.
  2. Increase and improve catch data collection for artisanal snapper and grouper fisheries: While a significant amount of snapper and grouper is purchased directly from small boats (<10 GT), many of these boats have not been registered. Proper registration is important to enable the supply chain to get the “catch certificate” documents required for export to some markets, especially the European market. In addition, most snappers and groupers coming from the artisanal fishery are not landed in the Fish Auction Hall (TPI), and therefore are not recorded under the official data collection system. Additionally, the landing-site-level and processor-level catch and production data is needed to help contribute to development of harvest strategies for the national snapper grouper management plan.
  3. Reduce the demand for “golden-size” fillets: These fillets, which weigh 200 to 300 grams, are in high demand in the market. They are processed from immature, juvenile fish weighing 800 to 1,500 grams. Scientific data show that the average length at maturity is about 54.8 cm, which yields about a 1,500-gram fish. Both FIPs include activities for conducting data collection on the life history of commonly harvested snapper and grouper species, to help contribute additional information on size at maturity. Information on appropriate sourcing specifications to avoid juvenile snapper and grouper species needs to be further expanded and shared with retail and foodservice partners.
  4. Support development of co-management for the artisanal sector of the snapper and grouper fishery: Approximately 80-85 percent of the snapper and grouper fishery consists of small-scale fishers who are not currently engaged with either national-level FIP. Fisher networks exist, but they lack the capacity to engage with government at the local, provincial, and national levels, or with the FIPs. Support for capacity development of small-scale snapper and grouper fisher networks, as well as the development of co-management approaches, is needed.

The 2022 public workplan for the Indonesian Snapper and Grouper SR can be accessed here.

Join This Roundtable

To join this Supply Chain Roundtable or for more information, please contact Amber Von Harten, or call SFP at 1-808-726-2582.